Poured we libations unto each the dead, First mead and then sweet wine, water mixed with white flour. This is followed by a passage that draws on Pound's London memories and his reading of the Pocket Book of Verse. These are contrasted with the actions of Thomas Jefferson, who is shown as a cultured leader with an interest in the arts. Canto LVIII opens with a condensed history of Japan from the legendary first emperor, Emperor Jimmu, who supposedly ruled in the 7th century BCE, to the late-16th-century Toyotomi Hideyoshi (anglicised by Pound as Messier Undertree), who issued edicts against Christianity and raided Korea, thus putting pressure on China's eastern borders. It opens with a passage in which we see the Odysseus/Pound figure, homecoming achieved, reconciled with the sea-god. Much of the rest of the canto consists of references to mystic doctrines of light, vision and intellection. There are a number of references to vegetation cults and sacrifices, and the canto closes by returning to the world of Byzantium and the decline of the Western Empire. , The poem's symbolic structure also makes use of an opposition between darkness and light. While in the Underworld, Odysseus sees the shade of Elpenor, a young man who had previously sailed with Odysseus. The rest of the canto consists mainly of paraphrases and quotations from Philostratus' Life of Apollonius. Pound's "nice, quiet paradise" is seen, in the notes for Canto CXI, to be based on serenity, pity, intelligence and individual acceptance of responsibility as illustrated by the French diplomat Talleyrand. originally consisted of three fragments, with a fourth, sometimes titled Canto CXX, added after Pound's death. The opening of Canto LXXXII marks a return to the camp and its inmates. The following canto, LXVIII, begins with a meditation on the tripartite division of society into the one, the few and the many. The first of these, "Addendum for C", is a rant against usury that moves a bit away from the usual antisemitism in the line "the defiler, beyond race and against race". The short extract from Canto CXV is a reworking from an earlier version first published in the Belfast-based magazine Threshold in 1962 and centres around two main ideas. Swartest night stretched over wretched men there. More generally, The Cantos, with its wide range of references and inclusion of primary sources, including prose texts, can be seen as prefiguring found poetry. This thread then runs through the appearance of Kuanon, the Buddhist goddess of mercy, the moon spirit from Hagaromo (a Noh play translated by Pound some 40 years earlier), Sigismondo's lover Ixotta (linked in the text with Aphrodite via a reference to the goddess' birthplace Cythera), a girl painted by Manet and finally Aphrodite herself, rising from the sea on her shell and rescuing Pound/Odysseus from his raft. The poetic response to The Cantos is summed up in Basil Bunting's poem, "On the Fly-Leaf of Pound's Cantos": A fraction of the poem is read near the ending of Pier Paolo Pasolini's 1975 film Salò, or the 120 Days of Sodom. The awarding of the Bollingen Prize to the book caused considerable controversy, with many people objecting to the honoring of someone they saw as a madman and/or traitor. The canto then goes on to outline the concurrent pressure placed on the western borders by activities associated with the great Tartar horse fairs, leading to the rise of the Manchu dynasty. Apollonius of Tyana appears, as do Helen of Tyre, partner of Simon Magus and the emperor Justinian and his consort Theodora. In summary, Pound opens Canto II by mentioning four different versions of the 13 th-century troubadour poet Sordello: Pound’s version of the poet, Robert Browning’s version from a work of 1840, Sordello the real man, and the version of Sordello that can be gleaned from the biographical fragments appended to his poems. However, The Pisan Cantos is generally the most admired and read section of the work. The next canto, Canto LXIII, is concerned with Adams' career as a lawyer and especially his reports of the legal arguments presented by James Otis in the Writs of Assistance case and their importance in the build-up to the revolution. There are references to the Malatesta family and to Borso d'Este, who tried to keep the peace between the warring Italian city states. In his 1918 essay A Retrospect, Pound wrote "I think there is a 'fluid' as well as a 'solid' content, that some poems may have form as a tree has form, some as water poured into a vase. The rest of the canto is concerned with events leading up to the revolution, Adams' time in France, and the formation of Washington's administration. Images of light saturate this canto, culminating in the closing lines: "A little light, like a rushlight / to lead back to splendour". 1 Abundant evidence on these points is provided by Heymann, C. D. 's Ezra Pound: The Last Rower (New York: Viking Press, 1976). With his political certainties collapsing around him and his library inaccessible, Pound turned inward for his materials and much of the Pisan sequence is concerned with memory, especially of his years in London and Paris and of the writers and artists he knew in those cities. and William Carlos Williams wrote long poems that show this influence. and Gary Snyder. In Canto 12 copper, the Homeric oricalc, reappears in the form of little copper pennies. The book closes with an account of Benito Mussolini as a man of action and another lament on the waste of war. Like “The shadow of the tent's peak treads on its corner peg I slept in Circe’s ingle. . Pound added to his earlier interests in the classical Mediterranean culture and East Asia selective topics from medieval and early modern Italy and Provence, the beginnings of the United States, England of the 17th century, and details from Africa he had obtained from Leo Frobenius. He also echoes Dante's opening to The Divine Comedy in which the poet also descends into hell to interrogate the dead. Designed by Leon Battista Alberti and decorated by artists including Piero della Francesca and Agostino di Duccio, this was a landmark Renaissance building, being the first church to use the Roman triumphal arch as part of its structure. It was suggested by the heading ("The Rock Drill") of Wyndham Lewis's 1951 review of The Letters of Ezra Pound.. The canto then turns to modern commerce and the arms trade and introduces Frobenius as "the man who made the tempest". Canto LXXIV immediately introduces the reader to the method used in the Pisan Cantos, which is one of interweaving themes somewhat in the manner of a fugue. In the light of cantos written later than this letter, it would be possible to add other recurring motifs to this list, such as: periploi ('voyages around'); vegetation rituals such as the Eleusinian Mysteries; usura, banking and credit; and the drive towards clarity in art, such as the 'clear line' of Renaissance painting and the 'clear song' of the troubadours. Pound was arrested in Rapallo by Italian partisans on May 3, 1945, was detained in Genoa, and was eventually transferred to the American Disciplinary Training Center (DTC) north of Pisa on May 22. At one end of the spectrum George P. Elliot has drawn a parallel between Pound and Adolf Eichmann based on their antisemitism, while at the other Marjorie Perloff places Pound's antisemitism in a wider context by examining the political views of many of his contemporaries, arguing that "We have to try to understand why" antisemitism was widespread in the early twentieth century, "and not say let's get rid of Ezra Pound, who also happens to be one of the greatest poets of the 20th C.", This is complicated by the fact that The Cantos themselves contain very little evidence of Pound's otherwise blatant antisemitism: in a close study of the poem, Wendy Stallard Flory concluded that it contained only seven passages of antisemitic sentiment in the 803 pages she read. The canto ends with limitations being placed on Christians, who had come to be seen as enemies of the state. —which read, in the translation by Charles Eliot Norton, "O ye, who are in a little bark, desirous to listen, following behind my craft which singing passes on, turn to see again Your shores; put not out upon the deep; for haply losing me, ye would remain astray." The close attention paid to the actual words prefigures the closer focus on philology in this section of the poem. ... Canto I at Poets'.org. The tone of placid acceptance is underscored by three Chinese characters that translate as "don't help to grow that which will grow of itself" followed by another appearance of the Greek word for weeping in the context of remembered places. R. P. Blackmur, an early critic, wrote, The Cantos are not complex, they are complicated; they are not arrayed by logic or driven by pursuing emotion, they are connected because they follow one another, are set side by side, and because an anecdote, an allusion or a sentence begun in one Canto may be continued in another and may never be completed at all; and as for a theme to be realized, they seem to have only, like Mauberley, the general sense of continuity — not unity — which may arise in the mind when read seriatim. The earliest part of The Cantos to be published in book form was released by Three Mountains Press in 1925 under the title A Draft of XVI Cantos. The goddess appears as Kuanon, Artemis and Hebe (through her characteristic epithet Kallistragalos, "of fair ankles"), the goddess of youth. There follows a long lyrical passage in which a ritual of floating votive candles on the bay at Rapallo near Pound's home every July merges with the cognate myths of Tammuz and Adonis, agricultural activity set in a calendar based on natural cycles, and fertility rituals. There is also wide geographical reference. As such, it represents a Poundian non-capitalist ideal. In Ginsberg's development, reading Pound was influential in his move away from the long, Whitmanesque lines of his early poetry, and towards the more varied metric and inclusive approach to a variety of subjects in the single poem that is to be found especially in his book-length sequences Planet News (1968) and The Fall of America: Poems of These States (1973). However, the home achieved is not the place intended when the poem was begun but is the terzo cielo ("third heaven") of human love. He also draws a comparison between Coke and Iong Cheng. Following a passage on the drafting of the Declaration of Independence, the canto returns to Adams' mission to France, focusing on his dealings with the American legation in that country, consisting of Franklin, Silas Deane and Edward Bancroft and with the French foreign minister, the Comte de Vergennes. Holding his golden wand, knew me, and spoke first: “Facing the sunless dead and this joyless region? Canto XII consists of three moral tales on the subject of profit. The theme of hatred is addressed directly at the opening of Canto CXIV, where Voltaire is quoted to the effect that he hates nobody, not even his archenemy Elie Fréron.